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Te crees alma libre, "salvaje", y temes te enjaulen. No limita al oeste de Tulip, Tejas, ni al este de Somalilandia. Home Questions Tags Users Unanswered. We decided to have the OP suggest a translation themselves, so that we do not use this as a translation service. What I just did is to change the format of the suggestion to spoilers so that it does not show up unless you hover the text.
Do you think this solves the problem? Got it. Intento inicial, caracteres. Enhorabuena por ofrecer algo tan correcto y corto a la vez. En la. Es cierto que era idea de Rodrigo. Esta respuesta mola pero tiene mucho que explicar Por cierto, si estos son los toques arcaicos suaves, estoy deseando ver los fuertes. CarlosAlejo me he limitado a las que figuran en el diccionario. La putada es que en no contando los espacios, la proclisis no me ahorra nada. Adjusted the terror part.
New count: , I think. Nice try, that's the spirit! Tienes un terror que te pongan en una jaula sounds weird to me. Also note the double vayas to the end.
He is exceptionally strong and vigorous, possessed of excellent health, never ill unless wounded. He can easily defeat a boy of the same age, who will more than likely be physically smaller, since the protagonists of the romances of chivalry are swarthy individuals, taller and huskier than the persons they come in contact with see the text quoted in note As stated above, the prince and king-to-be, in short, conforms very closely to the image of the ideal medieval ruler. While still at the court in which he has grown up he will receive instruction from tutors, such as a Spanish prince would; his attitude toward his studies will be respectful, not rebellious.
He will learn what is taught him, which often includes a variety of languages , later to serve him in good stead, but his inclination is obviously not to books nor to the world of learning. His studies do not continue past his youth.
The protagonist has Wanderlust. There is always opposition to this desire of his, some attempt made to convince or force him not to leave -scarcely surprising considering that he is so young He may have to depart secretly an action that Don Quijote was to imitate By this time he will have been or will seek to be dubbed a knight, by the person of highest status he can manage to find and convince to do so -a king or an emperor is ideal -, and will have received as gifts his first set of arms and armor, his shield white as befits a new or novel knight Later, after some especially noteworthy or significant adventure, he will take as a heraldic symbol an animal, natural phenomenon, flower, or some similar item, such as are found in any inventory of coats of arms, which in their origin were based on just such a practice.
Once he has left the court where he has grown up, the knight-errant for such he now is will travel extensively. His travels will be both through familiar and unfamiliar parts of the world: Europe, Asia, sometimes North Africa, sometimes to imaginary places made up by the author.
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The New World, of course, had not yet been discovered. He may visit London, Paris, or Constantinople, cities already with some chivalric tradition, but never Rome, Jerusalem, nor a Spanish city such as Toledo or Santiago. The travels of the knight offered the author of the romance an opportunity to entertain his readers, always eager for discussions of new and marvellous places, and display whatever geographic knowledge he might have, and his powers of imagination. The knight will primarily travel by land, on horse or occasionally on foot, but he may well have occasion to journey by sea or by means of some supernatural means of transportation.
His travels may be for various purposes: to see, serve, elope with, or retire from his lady, to attend a tournament announced in some more or less distant city, to go to the aid of kings or queens in need of military assistance to repel invaders or to claim what is rightfully theirs, to obtain a healing agent for someone ill, to help free someone held captive, to catch a glimpse of some beautiful woman, to get to know the identity of or to find his parents There may be no more significant reason than the fact that someone he encounters has requested his company.
The knight never seeks money; indeed, money is so seldom mentioned, as Don Quijote correctly points out to Sancho, that it seems that the protagonists of the romances live in a primitive era, outside the money economy altogether. The only times we find money mentioned at all is in terms of a prize or reward more often a valuable object , or as a tribute or tax demanded by an evil ruler as, for example, in Cirongilio de Tracia , III, The knight expects and receives hospitality from those he meets along his way; similar to the modern Indian holy man, it was considered both a duty and an honor to provide for someone as valuable to society as the knight.
His physical needs, modest in any event, are thus easily met. To the extent that the knight seeks anything, he seeks prestige, fame, and reputation, and his adventures are a means of obtaining these. However, besides his extraordinary deeds, he also attains fame and reputation because of the qualities of his personality -the gracious way the knight treats others, for example, magnanimously setting free the enemies he has vanquished.
Although he will never boast of or even recite his feats -for that would be a symptom of pride-, and may often disguise his identity, using, for example, borrowed armor with a different heraldic symbol, the news traveled fast in the chivalric world, and the knight-errant rapidly became well known and sought after. He is, in effect, proving that he is of royal abilities, and a fit ruler for the kingdom or empire which he will in the course of time inherit. Part of the knight's reputation, as we have just indicated, is based on something besides his ability as a fighter.
He will, in fact, have a great many desirable qualities: intelligence, a calm temper, magnanimity. His mesura and cool temper were important virtues, for one with a hot temper too easily gets into unnecessary fights. The knight has a highly developed ethical sense, and always helps the more deserving of two parties to a conflict; in fact, he feels he has a responsibility to help those deserving persons in need of his help, of which there are many.
The knight does not seek occasions for serious fighting, though he does for the less serious fighting which was intended as entertainment. He avoids conflict whenever possible, and only engages in it when reconciliation with his opponent is impossible, when the adversary cannot be made to see the inevitable error of his ways.
He will be a good courtier, even though court life is not to his taste He is neither wordy nor taciturn, and may be able to play musical instruments and compose verses. With all these desirable qualities and abilities, it is scarcely surprising that the knight is widely liked and respected. They may be simply jealous of him, jealousy being both a sin and a flaw in one's personality, or they may seek revenge for some defeat they have received at his hand Not infrequently he may gain an enemy as a consequence of an interest in, or from, a female.
Such enemies may invent falsehoods about the knight, accusing him of treason which he would never dream of committing. He may be accused of love for an inappropriate person, such as a married queen Or the accusations may be less serious. Usually the ultimate fate of the knight's evil accusers is death, either because a battle is required to show, through combat, which party is telling the truth and to cleanse the knight's honor and reputation, or because the malcreants are put to death by the king when exposed, or because they cannot bear living in humiliation, which in the chivalric world, again reflecting contemporary Spanish values, was felt to be intolerable.
The knight-errant and protagonist will not, however, seek the death of his enemies. Among the evil characters the knight will come into contact with on his travels are giants. As I have explained elsewhere , the giants were not supernatural beings but merely very large and ugly men, who believed themselves to be superior to ordinary men and therefore free from the troubling need to follow society's rules. Giants are clearly the villains of the romances of chivalry. Never Christians , they usurped kingdoms because of their whim, and carried off women with the intent of raping them and men to be sold as slaves.
One may well note here a reflection of the Spaniards' attitude toward the Moors. The giants are haughty and disrespectful.
They offer the knight the chance to show his extraordinary abilities in defeating and killing them; in the case of giants, he does not hesitate to put them to death. Occasionally one finds a good or reformed giant , and sometimes dwarfs , evil or otherwise. Several other characteristics of the knight in the romances of chivalry need mentioning.
Because he is such a likeable person and a good companion, the knight is seldom alone. This is not because he has a squire, since the role of squires in the Spanish romances of chivalry, as Don Quijote knew, is a very secondary one. It is rather because friends of similar age, or relatives, accompany him on his travels.
Often he travels with knights that he meets by chance on the road. The knight is also an outdoorsman. He is not upset by the discomforts of travel in those primitive times, and frankly enjoys the nature by which he is usually surrounded. He goes through beautiful forests, climbs gentle hills, comes across fresh, clear rivers , is woken in the morning by the singing of the birds, and makes his meals when necessary from what nature provides. His main diversion, aside from tournaments or an occasional sarao with the ladies, is caza de monte. Correspondingly, the knight does not like urban life.
Cities, as well as creature comforts, make him uneasy and restless.
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To visit a castle, palace, or court the latter usually set in a city may be attractive for a time, but once the tournament is over or his business concluded, the knight feels he must be on the road again, an attitude clearly reflected by Don Quijote in II, 57 and 58 of the Quijote. The knight may even be surmised to have a certain scorn for those who do not share this view.
One of the saddest moments in the life of a knight-errant or in the life of a king, perhaps the protagonist's father, a former knight-errant is when he finally accedes to his throne.
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While the knight feels comfortable in small groups and is glad to have company, he dislikes large gatherings of people. In a military action, conscious of his status, he will not mix with the common soldiers, though he will quite routinely accept a meal from shepherds if he encounters them on his travels. The tournament is the only exception to this, since tournaments are a basic element of the Spanish romances of chivalry, and they bring together a large body of knights. It may safely be concluded that the tournaments are as frequent as they are because the Spanish readers found them entertaining, strange as this may seem to the modern reader who has lost the taste for this type of sport.
A tournament would be given by a king, who himself gained status by staging one and by having distinguished knights in his court, even for a short time; the king also would enjoy recapturing some of the pleasure of the company of other knights, which he cannot enjoy as frequently as in his youth. A tournament usually had some prize or prizes to be awarded, some attraction which would draw knights.
They came not so much for the prize to be awarded since the winner, our protagonist, would invariably give it away in his turn, often to a woman present at the tournament whom he wished to impress. The knight entered the competition for the honor of winning the prize, the status gained thereby, and the social obligations he created with his gift. The most common sport at the tournaments was the fight with lances, long, thick poles with which two knights at a time ran at each other, on horseback, each attempting with the blow of the impact to knock the other from his horse.
The force of the impact was considerable, and often the thick lances would break; the two knights would continue using additional lances until one was victorious Although physical injury was not the object in this sport, which was often a game among friends, it was not uncommon for someone to be hurt. A sort of impromptu tournament, semi-serious, which the knight might encounter was the paso , in which someone would block the road, or a bridge, and the knight could not continue his travel unless he admitted something unacceptable that his lady was less beautiful than another, for example , or defeated in battle the knight maintaining the paso.
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