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Why softer skills are essential for the workforce of the future. Load More View All Manage. Some sociopolitical problems that arise are often due to systemic shortcomings in the management of the policy environment. One of her findings was that the LoI seemed to have been changed without any serious thought about changing the structure of the education system.
In effect, the crowning achievement for primary studies was still the selection process for entry to secondary school, and the only criterion for this selection was the examination results at the end of grade 7. Because secondary school was still taught in English, those who had their eyes set on secondary school considered it a disadvantage to have Kiswahili as their LoI at the primary-school level. In fact, at the secondary-school level, some preparations had already been made. According to Rubagumya , secondary-school students admit that they understand their teachers better when teaching is carried out in Kiswahili, but the majority of these students still think that English should be maintained as the LoI.
Roy-Campbell also noted that many students resist the change of LoI from English to Kiswahili because they assume that English is the best medium for science and technology, even though Kiswahili is the de facto medium of instruction in many schools. Such an anomaly, argued Roy-Campbell, can be seen as an indication of where the locus of power is perceived to be in society. These attitudes show that language preference is not just a matter of pedagogical effectiveness but is linked to wider political and socioeconomic factors, including the perceived status of various languages Yates Tableau 3.
La documentation en langue maternelle est assez abondante ; on trouve aussi des journaux et des magazines en langue maternelle. Considered together, the African language situation and the corresponding LoI issues summarized in Chapters 1 and 2 portray a sociolinguistic scenario in which many policymakers may opt for some type of bilingual or multilingual education.
Scholars in both Africa and the West have developed language-planning models that will probably suit the needs of some African countries. However, we will not discuss or propose any model. Instead, we leave this to the experts and policymakers for interesting discussions of language-planning models, see Tadadjeu ; Bamgbose ; Luckett ; Okombo Regardless of the planning model chosen, one has to keep in mind the lessons learned over the past three decades.
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The cases presented in this report summarized in Table 3 show that the problems experienced in the African bilingual or multilingual LoI programs have to do with the following:. Another important lesson is that failure in implementing LoI policies can have extremely high social-opportunity costs. Some countries such as Guinea and. Table 3. Policy objectives were clear and centred on national unity, cultural identity, and pedagogical effectiveness. No mother-tongue language policy has been Implemented nationwide, but experimentations with mother-tongue LoI have been going on for decades.
Policy objectives were clear for preprimary education but not as clear for upper levels. No mother-tongue language policy has been implemented nationwide, but there is a language-policy proposal with very clear objectives and guidelines. English, Kiswahili, and mother tongues are used at different levels and for different functions as an LoI or as a subject. Based on the proposed policy, mother tongues are to be used at lower levels of primary education, with French as a subject from second grade. Mother tongues are only used in the lower primary grades; English is the LoI in upper grades.
For ideological and pragmatic reasons, Kiswahili is widely spoken in the whole country and is cost-effective; it would be difficult to develop all languages as LoIs. Creation of coordinating, monitoring, and evaluating agencies to oversee implementation of LoI policy.
Research does not mention any implementation agencies or any guidelines for state agencies to follow e. Mali has set up agencies capable of serving as implementation agencies when the LoI policy is implemented. National LoI is not valued because it is not useful in the job or professional world after school. The mother tongue is not valued as an LoI it is used only in rural areas ; Kiswahili has acquired some prestige because of its value in the job market and its use in Parliament alongside English, but it is rated as less prestigious than English.
French is still the favoured LoI because it is a medium of social mobility; Bambara is the favourite lingua franca. Given the historical background of South Africa, English is the favoured LoI; mother tongues are not perceived as media of social mobility. Kiswahili is more prestigious than the ethnic languages but less prestigious than English. Good results in cognitive learning in Setswana have been attained in tests at the end of standard 4.
There has been no evidence of the contribution of the mother tongue to exam performance, but research shows a better understanding of science lessons in the mother tongue. Evidence from nonformal and formal systems shows that learning in the mother tongue has a positive impact on achievement.
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The Ife project provided evidence of a positive relationship between mother-tongue LoI, cognitive development, and second-language acquisition. Learning results are very poor in secondary school because of a language barrier; no research has been done at the primary level to show that learning outcomes have been facilitated by a change of LoI. Fewer than half of the indigenous languages are usable as LoIs; those that are used are used mainly for school literacy materials and bibles; only Kikuyu has a significant body of written literature.
Mother-tongue materials are sufficiently developed; mother-tongue newspapers and magazines exist. The major languages Hausa, Yoruba, and Ibo have a significant body of written literature; some of these languages are used as LoIs at the university level. Kiswahili has a standardized grammar and a thriving, established literature and press; the language is used in government, mass media, commerce, etc.
A Setswana curriculum has been developed, but it has been influenced by a long history of changes in language policy. The curriculum for mother-tongue instruction is vague and not language specific; current practices were mainly inherited from the colonial period. Little mention of mother-tongue curricula is made in research, but their existence can be inferred.
Curricula are mainly based on the old English ones; integrating the conceptual and cultural experience of the new LoI into the old curricula is problematic. Textbooks and didactic materials are available, but little mention is made of their use. Not enough textbooks and didactic materials are available; there are problems with writing new books and translating old ones from the former LoI. Pedagogical methods are not clearly stated for Setswana as the LoI, but they are stated for Setswana as a subject.
Pedagogical methods are by and large those used with the former LoI, with very few innovations. Monitoring and evaluation have not been reported; there is evidence that principals determine much of what takes place in schools. There are general inspection practices but none intended for monitoring instruction in the mother tongue; teachers generally decide what to do. Experiments have been evaluated by both national and international evalu-ators: the mother tongue is a feasible alternative.
Evaluation of the Ife project shows that mother-tongue LoI combined with an adapted curriculum has a positive impact on cognitive development and second-language acquisition. Madagascar are currently faced with failed or interrupted LoI policies, and that situation will probably take generations and massive financial resources to repair. The experiences discussed in the case studies in this report clearly demonstrate the need to give serious attention to LoI problems in Africa. Attention should focus on. This report would have benefited from other African case studies — more precisely, from experiences in Francophone and Lusophone Africa.
Thus, a worthwhile topic for future research would be the experiences of as many African countries as possible in terms of the aspects identified in Table 3 especially, those related to implementation and pedagogical effectiveness. Education in Africa. Akinnaso, F. Policy and experiment in mother-tongue literacy in Nigeria.
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International Review of Education, 39 4 , — Alexandre, P. An introduction to languages and language in Africa. Heinemann, Nairobi, Kenya. Bamgbose, A. Mother-tongue medium and scholastic attainment in Nigeria. Prospects, 14 1 , 87— Language and the nation: the language question in sub-Saharan Africa.
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Banks, A. A cross-policy survey.
Chumbow, B. The place of mother tongue in the national policy of education. In Emananjo, E. Multilingualism, minority languages and language policy in Nigeria.
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