It is a colossal drama with human- ity for its hero. Weak human nature may fall, under temptation, but its innate nobility will assert itself triumphantly in the end. Faust atones for his errors by a life devoted to altruistic effort, and so his soul after all is saved. The Catholic atmosphere of the closing scene, where the penitent Gretchen intercedes with the Virgin for her lover, betrays the influence of the Romantic School. If Goethe is the man of universal gifts, Johann Christoph Friedrich Schiller is pre- eminently a ilramatist.
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He too received his first impulse from the Storm and Stress movement. His first three dramas, "Die Riiuber" , "Fiesco" , and "Kabale und Liebe" , breathe a spirit of passionate revolt. With all their youthful exaggeration, they reveal unmistakable dramatic power. In " Don Carlos" a calmer spirit reigns and a greater mastery of form is evident.
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Freedom of thought is the burden of its message. The composi- tion of this work had turned Schiller's attention to history, and for a time the study of history and phil- osophy got the better of poetic production. Goethe's study of Kant's philosophy was responsible for a number of works of an aesthetic char- acter, notably " Ueber naive und sentimentalische Dichtung", where naive and sentimental are taken as typical of ancient and modern respectively.
His friendship with Goethe won Schiller back to poetry and now followed in rapid succession his dramatic masterpieces: " Wallensteiu", a trilogy, the first historic German tragetly in the grand style 99 , "Maria Stuart" , and "Die Jungfrau von Orleans " , a noble defence of the Maid of Or- leans against the slanders of Voltaire. The poet's last great drama, "Wilhelm Tell" , is, perhaps, the most popular German play. Here lie reverts again to the idea of freedom which he cham- pioned so passionately in his youthful dramas, and which here found its most convincing expression.
The grandly conceived tragedy "Demetrius" re- mained a fragment, owing to the author's untimely death 1S As a lyric poet Schiller is far below Goethe. His lyrics lack spontaneity; they are rather the product of reflection and are mostly philosophic in character. His masterpiece in this line is " Das Lied von der Glocke" Danzig, Prussia, German Empire. Pommern, Polen. Dresden, Sachsen, Deutschland.
Palenque, Mexiko. Caracas, Venezuela. Padua, Veneto, Italy. Athens, Greece. Brandenburg, Deutschland. Athen, Griechenland. Danzig, Polen. Austro-Hungarian Empire.
Impero Austriaco. Danzica, Germania.
Pommeren, Polen. Hranice, Czech Republic. The Cathedral. Kloster Maulbronn. Metz, Grand-Est, France. Amsterdam, North Holland, Netherlands. Venezia, Veneto, Italia. Hamburg, Allemagne. Lubecca, Germania. Wahlheim, Deutschland. Bissau-Abbau, Prussia. Prussia, Germany. Wahlheim, Germany. Kiev, Ukraine.
Dritter Kreuzzug. Weimarer Republik. Third Crusade. Konzentrationslager Deutschland. Reign of Terror. Spanische Inquisition.
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Spaanse Inquisitie. Spanish Inquisition. The Trial of Mary Queen of Scots. Tweede Wereldoorlog.
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Zweiter Weltkrieg. Weimar Republic. Eerste Wereldoorlog. Erster Weltkrieg. Battaglia di Solferino. Revolutions of Discovery of the Galilean moons. Galileo affair.
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Erotic adventures in Paris leave him with a disfiguring disease. He makes visits to utopian communities. One of them is populated by mermen and mermaids and located at the bottom of a lake in the Black Forest. The only controlling logic of the work is unpredictability. There is no development of character, no movement toward an ethical goal, only the changing of masks.
At each point where a stable life could develop, some unpredictable catastrophe interferes, often brought about by the war. In the end, the fool-hero abandons the treacherous world and retreats to the forest, where he lives as a religious hermit. Alongside Grimmelshausen, other Baroque writers who deserve mention are the poet and poetic theorist Martin Opitz , who introduced foreign literary models and rules into German poetry , and the lyric poet and dramatist Andreas Gryphius , who wrote sonnets and tragedies imbued with a deep Christian faith.
The era of confessional conflict and war had come to an end in , but urban culture continued to decline, and the empire became a country of innumerable courts. Dependent mostly upon princely patronage, cultural life became decentralized and very provincial. Enlightenment optimism envisioned progress as attainable through education and science. To Leibniz this was the best of all possible worlds. He constructed a model for the universe as an absolutist state with God as the monarch, or central monad, which all other monads, including man, reflect and strive to emulate.
This metaphysical model of the universe influenced European writers from Voltaire who satirized Leibniz in Candide to Goethe, who as late as represented the protagonist of Faust as a monad seeking salvation. During the period of economic decline in the second half of the 17th century, the German courts and the educated class had sought to profit from the progressive developments in France by adopting not only the standards of French civilization but also its language.
Leibniz wrote most of his essays in French or in Latin, which was the language of university scholarship. Those who wrote in German needed to free themselves from charges of provinciality and from foreign dominance. Considering popular German culture plebeian and vulgar, the aristocracy read only French literature and listened to Italian opera. By the s the effort to demonstrate that German was capable of literary expression led to a search for roots in national history and a discovery of an indigenous German tradition in folk songs and ballads.
These enterprises would serve as models for a national literature. The first literary reforms in Germany between and , however, were based on French 17th-century Classicism. He also initiated a reform of the German theatre aimed on the one hand against the Baroque extravagance of the aristocratic theatre and on the other against the vulgarity of popular theatre. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
Schiller, J. Willoughby , Clarendon Press, Amrine, F, Zucker, F.
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