The Mole Chronicles - Book IV: The Search

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Each Atom Can Make a Defined Number of Covalent Bonds

More information about this seller Contact this seller 2. Former Library book. More information about this seller Contact this seller 3. Published by Methuen, London England About this Item: Methuen, London England, Condition: Very Good. Dust Jacket Condition: Very Good. Message to previous owner to inside cover. Line drawings by Caroline Holden. Adrian Mole is a worrier.

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The problems of existence hit him hard. Spots, bits of him that won't seem to keep still, the cracks in his parents' marraige, all prey heavily on his mind. There are consolations. A fourteen-year-old feminist, an eighty-nine-year-old chain smoker and his spoilt best friend all help to lift the gloomy introspection of Mole's moods. Seller Inventory More information about this seller Contact this seller 4. Published by Penguin Books About this Item: Penguin Books, Soft cover.

Condition: New. No Jacket. More information about this seller Contact this seller 5. Published by Pearson Education Limited Galway, Ireland. About this Item: Pearson Education Limited, One of a series of top-quality fiction for schools, this is Sue Townsend's wry and witty diary of the adolescent Adrian Mole. Series: New Windmills. Num Pages: pages. Dimension: x x Weight in Grams: Seller Inventory V More information about this seller Contact this seller 6.

David Joutras (Author of The Mole Chronicles - Book IV)

Published by Methuen London Ltd About this Item: Methuen London Ltd, Condition: Fine. A clean unmarked copy with no inscriptions clean and bright pages.

Original pictorial stiff covers are clean and bright. Overall a well preserved copy. Usual toning and shelf wear should be expected. A rare first edition in paperback. Seller Inventory TSB More information about this seller Contact this seller 7. Published by Methuen, UK About this Item: Methuen, UK, Condition: As New.

More information about this seller Contact this seller 8. Published by Methuen, London About this Item: Methuen, London, Very good copy in clean unmarked green boards, firmly bound with only very light tanning to text block. No foxing. No inscriptions. DJ is unclipped and clean with a very faint crease to the back. More information about this seller Contact this seller 9. Published by London: Methuen About this Item: London: Methuen, Binding tight; pages clean though very lightly toned; spine slightly cocked; ownership bookplate on inside front cover of banker and memoirist Peter Apap Bologna.

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The DJ front flap includes blurbs from two reviews, so perhaps there was a second issue of the first printing? One of the funniest YA novels I've ever read. More information about this seller Contact this seller About this Item: Adrian Mole is suffering the traumas of first love, parental divorce and spots. He also believes he is an intellectual just waiting to be discovered. In his diary he writes the. London; Methuen. Original green linson boards lettered in gilt to spine, preserved in pictorial dustwrapper; pp.

First edition.

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A classic of comic fiction: "Mole believes he is an intellectual. He is certainly a poet. He buys strikingly coloured stationery on which to write his poems and send them to the B. He is dogged by ill health as well as by an infuriatingly ever-present pet dog, and by a catalogue of misfortunes familiar to anyone over the age of thirteen" preface. Published by Heinemann About this Item: Heinemann, Published by Methuen Publishing About this Item: Methuen Publishing, First edition, first impression hardback in price-clipped dustjacket.

No inscriptions, not ex-library. Some reading lean. Pages tanned commensurate with age and paper stock used. A tidy copy Language: eng Language: eng.

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  • Seller Inventory ABE Published by Penguin About this Item: Penguin, With a beautiful new package, this novel is perfect for long-time Adrian Mole fans or newcomers to the series. Hard Cover. Dust Jacket Condition: Near Fine. First Grove Press Edition. Published by Methuen Each shell has a maximum number of electrons that it can hold. Electrons fill the innermost shells of an atom first; then the outer shells.

    In most cases, in order to fill the outermost orbital, the electrons within it form covalent bonds with other atoms. A covalent bond thus holds two atoms close together because electrons in their outermost orbitals are shared by both atoms. Most of the molecules in living systems contain only six different atoms: hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, oxygen, and sulfur. The outermost orbital of each atom has a characteristic number of electrons:. These atoms readily form covalent bonds with other atoms and rarely exist as isolated entities.

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    As a rule, each type of atom forms a characteristic number of covalent bonds with other atoms. For example, a hydrogen atom, with one electron in its outer shell, forms only one bond, such that its outermost orbital becomes filled with two electrons. A carbon atom has four electrons in its outermost orbitals; it usually forms four bonds, as in methane CH 4 , in order to fill its outermost orbital with eight electrons. The single bonds in methane that connect the carbon atom with each hydrogen atom contain two shared electrons, one donated from the C and the other from the H, and the outer s orbital of each H atom is filled by the two shared electrons:.

    Nitrogen and phosphorus each have five electrons in their outer shells, which can hold up to eight electrons. Nitrogen atoms can form up to four covalent bonds. In ammonia NH 3 , the nitrogen atom forms three covalent bonds; one pair of electrons around the atom the two dots on the right are in an orbital not involved in a covalent bond :. The resonance hybrid on the left, in which the P atom forms the maximum five covalent bonds, has no charged atoms. Esters of phosphoric acid form the backbone of nucleic acids, as discussed in Chapter 4; phosphates also play key roles in cellular energetics Chapter 16 and in the regulation of cell function Chapters 13 and The difference between the bonding patterns of nitrogen and phosphorus is primarily due to the relative sizes of the two atoms: the smaller nitrogen atom has only enough space to accommodate four bonding pairs of electrons around it without creating destructive repulsions between them, whereas the larger sphere of the phosphorus atom allows more electron pairs to be arranged around it without the pairs being too close together.

    Both oxygen and sulfur contain six electrons in their outermost orbitals. However, an atom of oxygen usually forms only two covalent bonds, as in molecular oxygen, O 2 :. Primarily because its outermost orbital is larger than that of oxygen, sulfur can form as few as two covalent bonds, as in hydrogen sulfide H 2 S , or as many as six, as in sulfur trioxide SO 3 or sulfuric acid H 2 SO 4 : Esters of sulfuric acid are important constituents of the proteoglycans that compose part of the extracellular matrix surrounding most animal cells Chapter When two or more atoms form covalent bonds with another central atom, these bonds are oriented at precise angles to one another.

    The angles are determined by the mutual repulsion of the outer electron orbitals of the central atom.

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    These bond angles give each molecule its characteristic shape Figure In methane, for example, the central carbon atom is bonded to four hydrogen atoms, whose positions define the four points of a tetrahedron, so that the angle between any two bonds is Like methane, the ammonium ion also has a tetrahedral shape. In these molecules, each bond is a single bond, a single pair of electrons shared between two atoms. Atoms connected by a double bond cannot rotate freely about the bond axis, while those in a single bond generally can.

    The rigid planarity imposed by double bonds has enormous significance for the shape of large biological molecules such as proteins and nucleic acids. In triple bonds, two atoms share six electrons. These are rare in biological molecules. Bond angles give these water and methane molecules their distinctive shapes. Each molecule is represented in three ways. The atoms in the ball-and-stick models are smaller than they actually are in relation to bond length, to show the bond angles clearly.

    The more In an ethylene molecule, the carbon atoms are connected by a double bond, causing all the atoms to lie in the same plane. Unlike atoms connected by a single bond, which usually can rotate freely about the bond axis, those connected by a double bond cannot. All outer electron orbitals, whether or not they are involved in covalent bond formation, contribute to the properties of a molecule, in particular to its shape.

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    For example, the outer shell of the oxygen atom in a water molecule has two pairs of nonbonding electrons; the two pairs of electrons in the H—O bonds and the two pairs of nonbonding electrons form an almost perfect tetrahedron. However, the orbitals of the nonbonding electrons have a high electron density and thus tend to repel each other, compressing the angle between the covalent H—O—H bonds to In a covalent bond , one or more pairs of electrons are shared between two atoms. In certain cases, the bonded atoms exert different attractions for the electrons of the bond, resulting in unequal sharing of the electrons.

    The power of an atom in a molecule to attract electrons to itself, called electronegativity, is measured on a scale from 4. This type of interaction is discussed in a later section. Electronegativity values of main-group elements in the periodic table.

    Atoms located to the upper right tend to have high electronegativity, fluorine being the most electronegative. Elements with low electronegativity values, such as the metals lithium, more In a covalent bond in which the atoms either are identical or have the same electronegativity, the bonding electrons are shared equally. Such a bond is said to be nonpolar.

    The Mole Chronicles - Book IV: The Search The Mole Chronicles - Book IV: The Search
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