Under Drakes Flag [with Biographical Introduction]

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Sir Francis Drake: A Pictorial Biography by Hans P. Kraus


Drake is supposed to kill any guard that finds him, but he can't bring himself to do it when one guard begs him not to and claims he has a family. Teri shows up to help Drake escape and erase part of the guard's memory so the guard wouldn't have to be killed.

He later engages in a huge fight with the opponents at the swim meet, fighting alongside Marshall High Students. Drake has green eyes and close to shaven, dark brown hair. He wears casual clothing, usually consisting up a button up. Appears to be 17 or For more additional gallery information please visit Layout Guide for gallery information and how to input it.

Sign In Don't have an account? Start a Wiki. Contents [ show ]. Drake has their own photo gallery. Categories :. Show me your school spirit, I'll show you mine. This page focuses on Drake to see the real life portrayal of Drake please visit Greg Finley. Biographical information. But on the other side, because yf the Bishop of Rome had power to dispense in the first marriage of King Henry the eyght, then was the subsequent marriage with Anne Bullen voyde; besides the command of conscience, it was alsoe an inducement in reasone for Queene Elizabeth to reject his authority.

Not only the Queen, but the majority of those people who, at her accession, were dominant in English political life and in the country's commerce were inclined towards Protestantism. The continuing bitterness of religious strife, which had been particularly clearly demonstrated by Queen Mary's unfortunately zealous persecution of Protestants, had convinced these men that they were not safe under any but Protestant rule. The great powers of the day-predominantly Catholic--regarded them, so they saw, not merely as religious dissidents, but as heretics, who would suffer again--and worse--if England continued under Roman Catholic rule.

Hence, they were well satisfied with Elizabeth. However, unless she married and had issue to keep the crown in native Protestant hands, her successor would be a Catholic--her cousin, Mary Stuart. Mary held the title of Queen of Scots for most of Elizabeth's reign, and actually ruled in Edinburgh for a part of it. Throughout this period, however, she was potentially a puppet, first of France and then of Spain, who might have used her, had she succeeded Elizabeth, to deprive Englishmen of effective national independence and the free exercise of their religion.

When they looked abroad, therefore, an uninviting panorama greeted the eyes of many Englishmen. The undoubted spiritual leader of the Catholic Church was the Pope in Rome, but its temporal champion--one who was providing Catholicism with more and more impetus--was clearly Philip II, King of Spain and of much of Europe and the New World. Englishmen were largely unaware of the fact that Philip, until recently King of England through marriage to the Queen Mary whom Elizabeth had now succeeded, had attempted to restrain his wife's ardor in persecuting their English Protestant subjects.


Drake Biography

Nor did they know that, in fact, relations between Spain and the Papacy were usually cool and distant. Philip II ruled an immense, populous and wealthy empire. Its extent alone considered, it was the greatest the world had ever known. Not content with the splendid islands and mainland of America, it extended across another ocean, to where the eponymous Philippines were being subdued to Philip's rule. Eastwards, his empire in Europe included most of the Mediterranean islands and half of mainland Italy; northwards it took in Burgundy and the Low Countries and had permanent intimate links with the hereditary Habsburg lands, from which his Austrian cousins exerted an extensive influence in central Europe.

Meanwhile, small states important for their markets and their shipping, such as Genoa and Ragusa in the Mediterranean, and Friesland and the Hanseatic cities in Germany, were slipping increasingly from the status of allies to that of satellites of so great a monarchy. Philip straddled the world like a colossus.

His power overshadowed that of the monarchs of France and England who at one time had used the Spanish kingdoms as their own battleground. His income from the royal fifth of precious metals mined in America alone surpassed Elizabeth's entire revenue. His great galleys, thoroughbreds of the Mediterranean, policed the inland sea and drove the infidel back into the inlets of the Levant, while the massive and capacious ships of his merchants provided an enormous volume of tonnage for moving Spanish exports across the ocean and for transporting the wealth of the Indies to the Peninsula.

However, although Philip was most powerful in southern Europe, his position required him to maintain a stance in which one foot was firmly planted in the north of the continent. The Low Countries contained the greatest money market in Europe.

Under Drake's Flag: A Tale Of The Spanish Main (FULL Audiobook)

They were the emporium for the spices and finery of the Orient and the pearls and emeralds of America. The commercial acumen and enterprise of the Netherlanders fed the Spanish armed forces and procured the strategic materials required for their equipment.

Why did this block occur?

Since the industrious, concentrated populations of the Low Countries made them the workshop of Europe, Netherlanders were the King of Spain's artists, armorers, shipbuilders, mechanical engineers and tailors by appointment. Philip could not afford to lose such a country--small, but disproportionately important in its capacity to balance the more technically and commercially backward portions of the empire.

Without the services of Netherlanders Philip could not readily realize the wealth of Spain and the Indies in order to pay for his troops and his arsenals. It was the Low Countries that made possible a panoply of power commensurate with the empire's extent and riches. However, he was about to tread too heavily in these inherited lands. Apparently unaware that northern Europeans of whatever persuasion were already alarmed by the thoroughgoing extirpation of Protestantism in Spain with which he had opened his reign, Philip proceeded to make plain his intention to reform the Church in the Netherlands by introducing the Inquisition there and reorganizing the Church's order to make it as responsive to royal control as the Spanish Church had long since become.

The Spanish Army was reinforced, and soon became the chief arm on which the Inquisition relied in its work of suppressing heretical belief. Philip's high-handed policies inevitably entailed trampling on the political privileges of the nobility and the towns, and they eventually brought on an uprising pledged to ending this military threat to the liberties traditionally enjoyed by the Netherlandish subjects of the Dukes of Burgundy.

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Here, then, is the stage of the 's set for action, and here is a roll call of the principal dramatis personae. But there is also a sub-plot. For long now Spanish students of navigation have had the benefit not of one only, but of several original treatises on the art: for some years one or other of these has been available also in other European languages, though not in English.

Sir Francis Drake: A Pictorial Biography by Hans P. Kraus

But, at long last, the situation changes: in Martin Cortes' work on navigation over oceans is translated by Richard Eden and published in London. For the first time the islanders learn, in their own tongue, how fleets carry the wealth of all the Indies across the sea to Spain and Portugal, and some of the secrets of the skill of the pilots who make this feat possible are explained. Furthermore, as the Spanish commitment in the Low Countries builds up, and as the Spanish Ambassador calls more and more frequently on English forbearance and assistance in keeping up communications, it dawns on the English that Spain is entirely dependent upon maritime skill to keep in touch with either of her most highly valued dominions--the Netherlands and the Indies.

With similar skill, therefore, the English could themselves reach out to overseas dominions as easily as did the Spaniards. The English are gradually to perceive that he who masters the sea also commands entire liberty of action.

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Besides being able to control a great part of the wealth of the world, a maritime power can exert influence that may prove decisive in the affairs of any country in the world that also possesses a seaboard. The young English Queen has the ability and training to learn anything she chooses. Will the Queen and her councillors choose to appreciate the weapon within their grasp?

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Can they evolve a maritime strategy? Can it be used to succor peoples desiring to have the freedom to choose to be Protestant? Will it suffice to defend England, if the vitality of her people in their new-found liberty and knowledge provokes the wrath of the mighty? Despite the pacific intentions that both English and Spanish sovereigns profess towards one another at the outset, the omens for a lasting peace are not good. By temperament the Queen is one of the least fanatical rulers of the age: she has boldly stated that she wishes 'to open no window into men's consciences.

His conviction that only uniformity in religion will insure the stability of his government and the salvation of his people compels him to try to satisfy himself as to the conscience of every subject of his. The alarming progress of the Inquisition, first in Spain and now in the Netherlands, shows that it has the full weight of royal authority behind its efforts to root out beliefs which the King finds unacceptable. Furthermore, the English approach to proficiency in navigating across the oceans suddenly makes acute a problem that has been causing gnawing doubts for a long time.

The issue has lain dormant for more than thirty years and, in itself, is quite independent of the religious controversy that has filled the intervening period. To many the question of international trade may appear mundane, but now, as always, it is essential to the prosperity of England.

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As islanders the English must, of course, trade with ships; these ships are now being set free from confinement to European waters by the new art of navigation. Already, as long ago as , a rare exploratory voyage took an English royal ship into Caribbean waters; on that occasion Spanish officers fired upon her, and after her escape from the harbor of Santo Domingo Charles V, as King of Spain, bitterly criticized them for not arresting the ship and imprisoning the crew as unwanted intruders in the Indies. Now that oceanic voyages are becoming commercial propositions, will the Queen exert herself to back up her subjects' enterprise when they send ships to trade with Spain's American empire?

Will King Philip allow them, after all, to invoke there the treaties of amity which privilege Englishmen to commerce with his dominions in Europe, especially now that so many more than before wish to make the voyage? These questions strike at the foundations of international relations. They involve an assessment of what authority the Pope had in when he affected to bestow sovereignty in the New World upon the monarchs of Spain and Portugal.

For the Queen of England, the liberty of her subjects to trade and to travel is in doubt: by extension, the prosperity of her realm is at stake.

Under Drakes Flag [with Biographical Introduction] Under Drakes Flag [with Biographical Introduction]
Under Drakes Flag [with Biographical Introduction] Under Drakes Flag [with Biographical Introduction]
Under Drakes Flag [with Biographical Introduction] Under Drakes Flag [with Biographical Introduction]
Under Drakes Flag [with Biographical Introduction] Under Drakes Flag [with Biographical Introduction]
Under Drakes Flag [with Biographical Introduction] Under Drakes Flag [with Biographical Introduction]
Under Drakes Flag [with Biographical Introduction] Under Drakes Flag [with Biographical Introduction]
Under Drakes Flag [with Biographical Introduction] Under Drakes Flag [with Biographical Introduction]

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